The Purpose of Patterns: (Tul)
(NOW featuring videos of the Chang-Hon Patterns!)

school logo of Kel-West Academy of Taekwon-Do and Hapkido

(To all readers: Kel-West Academy of Taekwon-Do and Hapkido (affiliated with G.T.F.)
recognizes BOTH the original 24 Chang-Hon style patterns (with sine-wave) as taught
and developed by the founder of Taekwon-Do, and the new G.T.F. patterns taught by the late
Grandmaster Park Jung Tae - The Webmaster)

The ancient law in the Orient was similar to the law of Hamurabi, "an
eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth," and was rigorously enforced even
if death was caused accidentally.

In this type of environment, and since the present system of free
MASTER WON-HYO (above) was a famous monk who introduced Buddism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 A.D. Photo courtesy of sparring had not yet been developed, it was impossible for a student of
the martial arts to practice or test his individual skill of attack and
defense against actual moving opponents.

Individual advancement was certainly hindered until an imaginative
practitioner created the first patterns.

Patterns are various fundamental movements, most of which represent
either attack or defence techniques, set to a fixed or logical sequence.

The student systematically deals with several imaginary opponents
under various assumptions, using every available attacking and blocking
tool from different directions. Thus, patterns practice enables the
student to go through many fundamental movements in series, to develop
sparring techniques, improve flexibility of movements, master body
shifting, build muscles and breath control, develop fluid and smooth
motions, and gain rhythmical movements.

It also enables a student to acquire certain special techniques
which cannot be obtained from either fundamental exercises or sparring.
In short, a pattern can be compared with a unit tactic or a word, if
fundamental movement is an individual soldier's training or alphabet.

Accordingly, patterns, the ledger of every movement, are a series of
sparring, power, feats and characteristic beauty.

Though sparring may merely indicate that an opponent is more or less
advanced, patterns are a more critical barometer in evaluating an
individual's technique.

The following points should be considered while performing patterns:

1. Pattern should begin and end at exactly the same spot. This will
indicate the performer's accuracy.
2. Correct posture and facing must be
maintained at all times.
3. Muscles of the body should be either tensed
or relaxed at the proper critical moments in the exercise.
4. The exercise should be performed in a rhythmic movement
with an absence of stiffness.
5. Movement should be accelerated or decelerated according to
the instructions in the encyclopedia (Taekwon-Do:
The Korean Art of Self-Defence).

6. Each pattern should be perfected before
moving to the next.
7. Students should know the purpose of each movement.
8. Students should perform each movement with realism.
9. Attack and defense techniques should be equally distributed
among right and left hands and feet.

All patterns in the encyclopedia are performed under the assumption the
student is facing "D" (see pattern diagram for Saju Jirugi).

There are a total of 24 TUL (patterns) in Taekwon-Do. General Choi,
Hong Hi (the founder), explains the reason for 24 patterns as:
"It is evident that no one can live more than a limited amount
of time.

Nevertheless, most people foolishly enslave themselves to
materialism, as if they could live for thousands of years.
Some people strive to bequeath a good spiritual legacy for
coming generations and, in this way, gain immortality.
Obviously, the spirit is perpetual, whereas the material
is not.

Therefore, what we can do to leave behind something
for the welfare of mankind is, perhaps, the most important
thing in our lives. Here, I leave Taekwon-Do for mankind as
a trace of man of the late 20th century. The 24 patterns
represent 24 hours, one day, or all my life."

Copyright 1966-2004 International Taekwon-Do Federation

Sine-Wave: (Hwaldung Pahdo)

Grand Master Park Jung Tae, founder of the Global Taekwon-Do Federation.

The Global Taekwon-Do Federation advocates the use
of sine-wave in both 'patterns' and 'step-sparring' training, which
employs a highly scientific and evolved approach to the martial arts.

Sine-wave motion theorizes that, when the body's torso is raised and
lowered (in conjunction with proper knee-spring, hip movement,
correct breathing and muscle relaxation) more power is generated
when blocking and punching than if the upper body were to remain
stiff (as taught in japanese karate)*. Also, as the body is raised
(and lowered) the downward motion of the block or strike
- through gravity - creates more power, as proven in the
science of physics.

Sine-wave has to be performed, naturally! If you use exaggerated
sinewave, then your technique will look "goofy" and you will also
lose power and your balance and footwork will suffer.

Sine-wave is best learned at a training hall and not necesarily
from a web-site ! In our opinion, if you really want to learn martial
arts properly, your computer training can only assist you in a limited
way. Students benefit most from a "live" and qualified black-belt

Also, Kel-West does not recommend that colored belts (or parents)
teach their children the Taekwon-Do patterns. If you have a question
you should wait until the next class and speak with your instructor.
Anyone with a question on patterns (and sinewave) can also email
the Kel-West Head Instructor.

Since 1990, the Global Taekwon-Do Federation, through
Grand Master Park, has implimented a new series of patterns designed
to challenge the skill level of the G.T.F. student while keeping the
art of Taekwon-Do both fresh and vibrant.

Thus, the patterns: Jee-Goo, Dan Ghoon, Jee-Sang, Pyong-Hwa,
and Sun Duk have been developed and implimented to
students all over the world. For more information on the new G.T.F.
patterns, please refer to the
official G.T.F. website.
(Please note: your browser will take you to a website outside
of this Kel-West site. We are not responsible for the contents of this new site.)

To send us an email, please click on envelope (on right): click on the envelope

(* Note: The writer is a former Brown-belt in Shorin-Ji Ryu Karate, as well as a Black-Belt
in Taekwon-Do. Although they seem similar, there are actually significant differences
between G.T.F. Taekwon-Do and Karate, particularly in the way the forms (patterns)
are taught.

The Interpretation of Patterns:

The names of the patterns, the number of movements, and the
diagramatic symbol of each pattern symbolizes either heroic
figures in Korean history or instances relating to historical

SAJU-JIRUGI: (14 moves)
Yellow-Stripe Belt means "four-directional punch." Saju Jirugi is a
fundamental exercise practiced by all beginners. It has no
historical significance, since it is not a pattern. This is a
required exercise for all Yellow-Stripe testing candidates.

To print out a paper version of SAJU-JIRUGI, click here.

Otherwise, click on the YOU-TUBE video (below): (Note: CD-Legacy patterns
video courtesy of

SAJU-MAKGI: (16 moves)
Yellow-Stripe Belt means "four directional block." Saju Magki is a
fundamental exercise practiced by all beginners. It has
no historical significance, since it is not a pattern. This
is a required exercise for all Yellow-Stripe testing
candidates (age 10 and over).

To print out a paper version of SAJU-MAGKI, click here.

Otherwise, click on the YOU-TUBE video (below): (Note: CD-Legacy patterns
video courtesy of

CHON-JI: (19 moves)
Yellow-Belt means literally, "the Heaven the Earth". It is, (in
the Orient), interpreted as the creation of the world or the
beginning of human history. Therefore, it is the initial pattern
played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar
parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth.
This pattern is a requirement of all students (age 10 and over)
testing for Yellow-Belt.

DAN-GUN: (21 moves)
Green-Stripe Belt is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of
Korea in the year of 2333 B.C.

DO-SAN: (24 moves)
Green Belt is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876-1938).
The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted
to furthering the education of Korea and its independence

WON-HYO: (28 moves)
Blue-Stripe Belt was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla
(pronounced Shi-la) Dynasty in the year of 686 A.D.

YUL-GOK: (38 moves)
Blue-Belt is the pseudonym of the great philosopher and scholar, Yi I
(1536-1584), nicknamed the "Confucius of Korea". The 38
movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38 deg.
latitude and the diagram (~) represents "scholar".

JOONG-GUN: (32 moves)
Red-Stripe Belt is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated
Hiro-Bumi Ito, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea,
known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-
Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to
represent Mr. Ahn's age when he was executed at Lui-Shung
prison (1910).

TOI-GYE: (37 moves)
Red-Belt is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century),
an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the
pattern refer to his birthplace on 37 latitude, the diagram
(~) represents "scholar".

HWA-RANG: (29 moves)
Black-Stripe Belt is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group which originated in
the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements
refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do developed
into maturity. Hwa-Rang was developed by Grandmaster Nam Ti Hi,
a former top student of General Choi and who served in the famous
Korean "Fist" division of the Korean Armed Forces back in the 1950's.

CHOONG-MOO: (30 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the
Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armoured
battleship (the 'Kobukson') in 1592, which is said to be the
precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why this
pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his
regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained
potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty
to the king.

Click on the video (below) to view CHOONG-MOO TUL
in "action" (below): (Note: this patterns video courtesy of

'The Black-Belt Patterns:' (1st Degree and higher):

JEE-GOO: (30 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt JEE-GOO is a Korean set of words, meaning GLOBAL.
The pattern begins with an "X" block, from a parallel
ready stance, symbolizing the crossing out of years of
strife in the art of Taekwon-Do. Performed by the
1st Degree Black-Belt holder.

KWANG-GAE: (39 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of
the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories
including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram (+)
represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory.
The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 A.D.,
the year he came to the throne.

Click on the video (below) to view KWANG-GAE TUL in
"action" (below): (Note: this patterns video courtesy of

PO-EUN: (36 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is the pseudonym of a loyal subject, Chong Mong-Chu (1400),
who was a famous poet and whose poem "I would not serve a second
master, though I might be crucified a hundred times,"
is known to
every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The
diagram (-) represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country
towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.

Click on the YOU-TUBE video to view PO-EUN in "action" (below): (Note:
CD-Legacy patterns video courtesy of

GE-BAEK: (44 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek Je Dynasty (660
A.D.). The diagram (I) represents his severe and strict military

EUI-AM: (45 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean
independence movement on March 1st, 1919. The 45 movements refer
to his age when he changed the name of Dong Hak (Oriental Culture)
to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The diagram (I)
represents his indomitable spirit, displayed while dedicating himself
to the prosperity of his nation.

CHOONG-JANG: (52 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the
Yi Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left-hand attack
to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able
to reach full maturity.

JOOK-AM: (112 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt considered the longest and most difficult pattern in the world,
Jook-Am has 95 moves, plus combinations, bringing it to 112 moves.
The name Jook-Am means a 'bamboo plant rooted in a giant boulder,
symbolised by the late Grand Master Park's lifetime struggle
and drive for perfection.

JUCHE: (45 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides
everything, in other words, the idea that man is the master of the world
and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu
Mountain which symbolizes the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram
(&) represents Baekdu Mountain.

KO-DANG: (39 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt was the name used by Man Sik Cho, a great politician and revolutionary.

SAM-IL: (33 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt denotes the historical date of the independence movement of Korea which
began throughout the country on March 1, 1919. The 33 movements in the
pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.

YOO-SIN: (68 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is named after General Kim Yoo Sin, a commanding general during the
Silla Dynasty. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 A.D.,
the year Korea was united. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn
on the right rather than left side, symbolizing Yoo Sin's mistake of
following his king's orders to fight with foreign forces against his own

CHOI-YONG: ('X' moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is named after General Choi Yong, Premier and Commander-in-Chief of the
Armed forces during the 14th century Koryo Dynasty. Choi Yong was
greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was
executed by his subordinate commanders headed by General Yi Sung Gae,
who later become the first king of the Lee Dynasty.

YON-GAE: (49 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is named after a famous general during the Koguryo Dynasty, Yon Gae
The 49 movements refer to the last two figures of 649 A. D., the
Year he forced the Tang Dynasty to quit Korea after destroying nearly
300,000 of their troops at Ansi Sung.

PYONG-HWA: ('X' moves)
First Degree Black-Belt an advanced G.T.F. pattern practiced by the 3rd Degree holder and up.

UL-JI: (42 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is named after General Ul-Ji Moon Dok who successfully defended Korea
against a Tang's invasion force of nearly one million soldiers. Led by
Yang Je in 612 A.D., Ul-Ji employing hit and run guerilla tactics, was
able to decimate a large percentage of the force. The diagram (L)
represents his surname. The 42 movements represents the author's age
when he designed the pattern

MOON-MOO: (61 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt honors the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty. His body was buried near Dae
Wang Am (Great King's Rock). According to his will, the body was placed
in the sea "where my soul shall forever defend my land against the
Japanese." It is said that the Sok Gul Am (Stone Cave) was built to
guard his tomb. The Sok Gul Am is a fine example of the culture of the
Silla Dynasty. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two
figures of 661 A.D. when Moon Moo came to the throne.

SO-SAN: (72 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyong Ung (1520-1604) during the
Lee Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organized a corps
of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myung Dang. The
monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of
the Korean peninsula in 1592.

SE-JONG: (24 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt is named after the greatest Korean king, Se-Jong, who invented the
Korean alphabet in 1443, and was also a noted meteorologist. The diagram
(Z) represents the king, while the 24 movements refer to the 24 letters
of the Korean alphabet.

TONG-IL: (56 moves)
First Degree Black-Belt denotes the resolution of the unification of Korea which has been divided
since 1945. The diagram (I) symbolizes the homogenous race.

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